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Current Studies

Traumatic Brain Injury and Violence: Reducing the risks, improving the outcomes (CIHR Strategic Teams in Applied Injury Research)



  • Kim, H., Bayley, M., Dawson, D., Mollayeva, T., Colantonio, A. (2013). Characteristics and functional outcomes of brain injury caused by physical assault in Canada: a population-based study from an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Disabil Rehabil 35(26): 2213-20.
  • Kim, H., Colantonio, A., Dawson, D.R., Bayley, M.T. (2013). Community integration outcomes after traumatic brain injury due to physical assault. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy 80(1): 49-58.
  • Kim, H., Colantonio, A. (2013). An examination of discharge against medical advice from brain injury inpatient rehabilitation. Brain Inj 27(3): 325-331.
  • Topolovec-Vranic, J., Ennis, N. (2013). Traumatic Brain Injury and Mental Health Amongst Individuals Who Are Homeless. Homeless in Europe Magazine. Summer 2013: 4-6
  • Topolovec-Vranic, J., Ennis, N., Ouchterlony, D., Cusimano, M.D., Colantonio, A., Hwang, S.W., Kontos, P., Stergiopoulos, V., Brenner, L. (2013). Clarifying the link between traumatic brain injury and homelessness: Workshop proceedings. Brain Inj 27(13-14): 1600-5.
  • Ilie, G., Boak, A., Adlaf, E.M., Asbridge, M., Cusimano, M.D. (2013). Prevalence and correlates of traumatic brain injuries among adolescents. JAMA 309(24): 2550-2.
  • Cusimano, M.D., Sharma, B., Lawrence, D.W., Ilie, G., Silverberg, S., Jones, R. (2013). Trends in North American Newspaper Reporting of Brain Injury in Ice Hockey. PLOS ONE 8(4): e61865. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061865.
  • Cusimano, M.D., Cho, N., Amin, K., Shirazi, M., McFaull, S.R., Do, M.T., Wong, M.C., Russell, K. (2013). Mechanisms of Team-Sport-Related Brain Injuries in Children 5 to 19 Years Old: Opportunities for Prevention. PLOS ONE 8(3): e58868. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058868.
  • Cusimano, M., Holmes, S., Topolovec-Vranic, J., Sawicki, C. (2013). Assessing Aggression Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review of Validated Aggression Scales. J Head Trauma Rehabil 29(2): 172-84.
  • Winters, M., Babul, S., Becker, H.J.E.H., Brubacher, J.R., Chipman, M., Cripton, P.A., Cusimano, M.D., Friedman, S.M., Harris, M.A., Hunte, G., Monro, M., Reynolds, C.C.O., Shen, H., Teschke, K. (2012). Safe cycling: How do risk perceptions compare with observed risk? Canadian Journal of Public Health 103: S42-S47.
  • Cusimano, M., Nastis, S., & Zuccaro, L. (2012) Effectiveness of interventions to reduce aggression and injuries among ice hockey players: a systematic review.  CMAJ 185(1): E57-69.

  • Teschke, K., Harris, A., Reynolds, C.C.O., Winters, M., Babul, S., Chipman, M., Cusimano, M.D., Brubacher, J.R., Hunte, G., Friedman, S.M., Monro, M., Shen, H., Vernich, L. & Cripton, P.A. (2012). Route infrastructure and risk of injuries to bicyclists: A case-crossover study. Am J Pub Health. E.pub February 23, 2012
  • Cusimano, M., Luon, W., Faress, A., Leroux, T., & Russell, K. (2012). Evaluation of a ski and snowboard injury prevention program. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. EPub
  • Hoshizaki, B., Vassilyadi, M., Post, A.,  Oeur, A. (2012). Performance analysis of winter activity protection headgear for young children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 9(2): 133-138
  • Post, A. Hoshizaki, B.,  Gilchrist, M.D. (2012). Finite element analysis of the effect of loading curve shape on brain injury predictors. .J Biomech 45(4): 679-683.
  • Cusimano, M., Taback, N., McFaull, S., Hodgins, R., Bekele, T., Elfeki, N., & Research Team in Traumatic Brain Injury and Violence, C. (2011). Effect of bodychecking on rate of injuries among minor hockey players. Open Med, 5(1): e57-67
  • Harris, M.A. Reynolds, C.C., Winters, M., Chipman, M., Cripton, P.A., Cusimano, M.D., & Teschke, K. (2011) The bicyclists’ injuries and the cycling environment study: a protocol to tackle methodological issues facing studies of bicycling safety.
  • Post, A., Oeur, A., Hoshizaki, B., & Gilchrist, M.D. (2011). Examination of the relationship between peak linear and angular accelerations to brain deformation metrics in hockey helmet impacts. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin EPub
  • Echlin, P.S., Johnson, A.M., Riverin, S., Tator, C.H., Cantu, R.C., Cusimano, M.D., Taunton, J.E., Ups hur, R.E.G., Hall, C.R., Forwell, L.A., & Skopelja, E.N. (2010).  A prospective study of concussion education in 2 junior ice hockey teams: Implications for sports concussion education.  Neurosurgical Focus, 29(5), E6.
  • Cusimano, M.D., & Kwok, J. (2010). The effectiveness of helmet wear in skiers and snowboarders: A systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44, 781-786.
  • Cusimano, M.D., & Kwok, J. (2010) Skiers, snowboarders, and safety helmets. JAMA, 303(7): 661-662
  • Cusimano, M., Marshall, S., Rinner, C., Jiang, D., & Chipman, M. (2010) Patterns of urban violent injury: a spatio-temporal analysis. PLoS One, 5(1): e8669
  • Cusimano, M.D., Nassiri, F., & Chang, Y. (2010). The effectiveness of interventions to reduce neurological injuries in rugby union: A systematic review.  Neurosurgery, 67(5), 1404-1418.
  • Echlin, P.S.,  Tator, C.H., Cusimano, M.D., Cantu, R.C., Taunton, J.E., Ups hur, R.E.G., Czarnota, M., Hall, C.R., Johnson, A.M., Forwell, L.A., Driediger, M., & Skopelja, E.N. (2010).  Return to play after an initial or recurrent concussion in a prospective study of physician-observed junior ice hockey concussions: Implications for return to play after a concussion.  Neurosurgical Focus, 29(5), E5.
  • Echlin, P.S.,  Tator, C.H., Cusimano, M.D., Cantu, R.C., Taunton, J.E., Ups hur, R.E.G., Hall, C.R., Johnson, A.M., Forwell, L.A., & Skopelja, E.N. (2010).  A prospective study of physician-observed concussions during junior ice hockey: Implications for incidence rates.  Neurosurgical Focus, 29(5), E4.
  • Cusimano, MD. (2009). Canadian minor hockey participants’ knowledge about concussions. Can J Neurol Sci36(3): 315-320.
  • Marchie, A., & Cusimano, M.D. (2003). Bodychecking and concussions in ice hockey: Should our youth pay the price?. Canadian Medical Association, 169 (2), 124 – 128.

Conference abstracts

  • Ryan, J., Uram, K., Ennis, N., Cusimano, M.D., Colantonio, A., Topolovec-Vranic, J. Traumatic Brain Injury and Cognitive Impairments in Homeless Youth. Ontario Society of Occupational Therapists Conference 2013, London, Ontario, September 27-28, 2013.
  • Cusimano, M., Shirazi, M., Amin, K., Russell, K., McFaull, S., Do, M. Violence-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries Sustained In Youth Team Sports: The Evidence For Prevention. American Association of Neurological Surgeons 81st Annual Scientific Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2013. Read abstract
  • Post, A., Hoshizaki, T.B., Cusimano, M., Gilchrist, M.D., Brien, S., Marshall, S. Analysis of the occurence of subdural hematoma in different lobes of the brain by finite element analysis. International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2013. Read abstract

Radio Interviews

Rugby & Junior Hockey

  • Krystal, A. (2010, November 4). Andrew Krystal in the morning. FAN 590 Radio. Retrieved December 29, 2010, from www.fan590.com (Download mp3 – 11.40mins – 5.4MB)
  • Off, C. (2010, November 1). As it happens. CBC Radio. Retrieved Part One from 21:50-28:10 December 29, 2010, from  http://www.cbc.ca

Sports injuries and concussions

  • McCown, B. (2013, July 18). Michael Cusimano pt. Sportsnet 590. 
  • Rosen, J. (2013, July 17). NHL Concussions. 680 News. 
  • Moore, T. (2013, April 3). The Drive with Terry Moore. CFAX 1070 Victoria. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from http://www.cfax1070.com/Media/CFAX-Podcasts/Terry-Moore

Video interviews


  • Sandie Rinaldo, CTVNews (2014 January 6). Brain rest after concussion. CTV News Channel. Retrieved January 10, 2014 from http://www.ctvnews.ca/

Skiing and Snowboarding Head Injuries

  • CTVNews (2013 December 30). Next 48 hours critical: Michael Schumacher in coma. CTV News Channel. Retrieved December 31, 2013 from http://www.ctvnews.ca/
  • CityNews (2012, January 20). Sarah Burke’s family receiving support from friends, fans. City TV. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from, http://www.citytv.com
  • CityNews (2012, January 17). Most Canadians seriously injured in snow sports. Retrieved January 18, 2011 from, http://www.citytv.com
  • Insidermedicine (2010, February 19). Preventing skiing and snowboarding head injuries. Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from http://www.insidermedicine.ca/

Head Injuries in Hockey

  • CBC News (2012, January 7). One year anniversary of Sydney Crosby’s career-stopping concussion. CBC News Channel.
  • Gulli, C., & Gillis, C. (2011, February 28). The aftershocks: What crash-test analyses reveal about the first hit to Sidney Crosby, helmets, the game of hockey – and why no one will think of concussions the same way ever again. Macleans Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  • CTV News (2011, September 7). Experts question Crosby’s ability to fully recover. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from, http://www.ctv.ca/

Water Safety and Spinal Cord Injuries

  • CTV News (2011, August 16). Injury spike prompts T.O. doc to warn of diving dangers. Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from, http://www.ctv.ca/
  • CityTV (2011, August 16). Most diving injuries preventable, alcohol related: St. Mike’s neurosurgeon. Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from, http://www.citytv.com/
  • CBC News (2011, August 16). Ref # 194ED4E-29
    Its summer fun on a hot day but diving into a pool or lake to cool off is becoming more risky. At least that’s what the numbers are telling us. Diving injuries in Toronto are on the rise at a remarkable rate…”
  • CTV News at 6:00 (August 16, 2011).  Ref # 194EF3E-3
    CTV News as learned there’s been a dramatic spike in the number of very serious diving accidents this season. Just a month ago, 23-year-old Brayden Lamoureux was a happy, healthy young man. He was cooling off in a lake with some friends. There were no rocks around. Tonight, he’s laying in a hospital bed paralyzed…”

Newspaper Articles

Researcher profiles

  • Forani, J. (2014, September 5). Toronto’s 'surgeon brothers' on top of medical world. Toronto Star. From http://www.thestar.com

Rugby Concussions

  • Fink, D. (2010, November 4). Education is the key. The Concussion Blog. Retrieved December 29, 2010, from http://theconcussionblog.com
  • Williamson, J. (2010, November 4). Education, not helmets, stops rugby concussions: Study. Top News. Retrieved December 29, 2010, from http://www.topnews.in
  • Blackwell, T. (2010, November 3). Blackwell on health: Education, not helmets stops rugby concussions: Study. National Post. Retrieved December 29, 2010, from http://news.nationalpost.com
  • CBC News. (2010, November 3). Rugby concussions not prevented by equipment: MD. Retrieved December 29, 2010, from http://www.cbc.ca
  • PhysOrg.com. (2010, November 3). Headgear, mouth guards have little or no impact on reducing concussions in rugby players. St Michael's Hospital source. Retrieved December 29, 2010, from http://physorg.com
  • St. Michael's Hospital. (2010, November 3). Protective equipment has little impact on reducing rugby concussions: Study. Retrieved December 29, 2010, from http://www.stmichaelshospital.com

Body Checking

  • CMAJ (2012, December 3) Rules limiting aggression should reduce hockey injuries. Science Codex retrieved December 6, 2012 from, http://www.sciencecodex.com
  • Fitz-Gerald, S. (2012, December 3). NHL should eliminate bodychecking: concussion expert.  National Post. Retrieved December 6, 2012 from http://sports.nationalpost.com
  • L610 CKTB News (2012, December 3). Less bodychecking, safer game. Newstalk 610 CKTB. Retrieved December 6, 2012 from http://www.610cktb.com/news/local
  • Hall, J. (2012, December 3). Body checking should be banned from minor hocky to cut concussions: Neurosurgeon. The Toronto Star. Retrieved December 6, 2012 from, http://www.thestar.com/sports/
  • Burke, V. ( 2012, Jul 18). Checking should be avoided in early levels of hockey, says U of A study. Camrose Canadian. Retrieved September 11, 2012 from, http://www.camrosecanadian.com
  • University of Albert (2012, July 12) Teaching Young Hockey Players to Body Check Doesn’t Cut Injury Risk: Learning to take a hit doesn’t make children less likely to sustain injuries, study says. Health Day. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from, http://consumer.healthday.com/
  • National Post (2011, September 7) Crosby has found his voice. Retrieved August 9, 2011 from, http://sports.nationalpost.com

Hockey Culture

  • Malone, Jim. (2013, December 5). Boston Bruins Injury to Boychuk may Spark Safety Controversy. The Guardian. Retrieved December 13, 2013 from http://guardianlv.com/
  • Hicks, Jeffrey. (2013, October 17). Hits to the head concussing NHL’s image. Before It’s News. Retrieved October 22, 2013 from http://beforeitsnews.com/
  • Ctvnews.ca staff. (2013 October 2). Fighting in the NHL:  Is it time to end the violence?. CTV News. Retrieved  October 4, 2013 from http://www.ctvnews.ca/
  • Fitz-Gerald, S. (2013, April 26). Leafs sending wrong message with combative style, critics say. National Post. Retrieved June 27, 2013 from http://sports.nationalpost.com/
  • HealthDay News (2013, January 18). Hockey Rule Changes Could Cut Player Aggression, Injuries. US News. Retrieved January 21, 2013 from http://health.usnews.com/
  • Canadian Press (2012, Dec 5). Rules barring aggressive checks cut hockey injuries like concussion: study. Fort Frances Times. Retrieved December 7, 2012 from, http://www.fftimes.com
  • Canadian Press (2012, January 25). Hockey referee survey catalogues widespread abuse. The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 7, 2012 from, http://www.thestar.com
  • Klein, J. (2011, December 12). In debate about fighting in hockey, medical experts weigh in. The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from, http://www.nytimes.com
  • Astleford, A. (2011, October 3). Player safety a growing problem in NHL. Fox Sports Midwest. Retrieved November 22, 2011 from, http://www.foxsportsmidwest.com
  • Ghanny, S. (2011, September 10). Ending violence in hockey. The Toronto Star. Retrieved on November 22, 2011 from http://www.thestar.com/

Hockey Concussions

  • Mohamed, A. (2013 December 12). Column: The NHL’s luck will run out. Ottawa Citizen.  Retrieved January 16, 2014 from http://www.ottawacitizen.com/
  • Balukjian, B. (2013, June 17). Hockey still plagued by concussions, despite rule changes. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from
  • Morrow, A. (2012, October 19). Concussion research gets huge financial shot in the arm. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 8, 2012 from, http://www.theglobeandmail.com/
  • The Canadian Press (2011, December 19). Concussion issue is the big story in NHL this year. TSN. Retrieved December 20, 2011 from, http://www.tsn.ca/
  • Starkman, R. (2011, December 16). Starkman: Chris Pronger’s future in doubt on and off the ice. The Toronto Star. Retrieved December 20, 2011 from, http://www.thestar.com
  • Hall, J. (2011, December 13).  Crosby’s concussion-like symptoms simply spell concussion, top neurologists say. The Toronto Star. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from, http://www.thestar.com
  • Keele, J. (2011, December 6). Research raises questions about impact of brain injuries on hockey players. CTV Winnipeg. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from, http://winnipeg.ctv.ca
  • Ormsby, M. (2011, November 12). The hurt locker (room) bond. The Toronto Star. Retrieved on November 22, 2011 from, http://www.thestar.com
  • Hall, J. (2011, November 2). Neck bands may prevent concussions. The Guelph Mercury. Retrieved November 22, 2011 from, http://www.guelphmercury.com
  • Joyce, G. (2011, September 29). Will he ever be the same? The Sports Net. Retrieved November 22, 2011 from, http://www.sportsnet.ca


  • Toogood, K. (2013, September 14). Bike helmets reduce head injuries – UofA study. Beacon News. Retrieved October 3, 2013 from http://beaconnews.ca/
  • Selley, C. (2013, June 25). Pleasure skating — the deadliest game. National Post. Retrieved September 26 from http://fullcomment.nationalpost.com/
  • Craig, M. (2012, January 27. What can NHL do about concussion problem? The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 7, 2012 from, http://www.thestar.com
  • Vienneau, A. (2012, January 20). What type of helmet is best for winter play? Eureka Alert. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from, http://www.eurekalert.org
  • CBC News (2012, January 20). Helmets for tobogganing kids get crash tests. CBC News. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from, http://www.cbc.ca
  • Brady, R. (2011, September 19). Football helmet safety questions come to a head. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved on November 22, 2011 from, http://www.theglobeandmail.com

Junior Hockey Concussions

  • MacGregor, R. (2013, March 4). Concussion concerns fuel desire for youth hockey bodychecking ban: Survey. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved March 13, 2013 from www.theglobeandmail.com/.
  • Rick Hansen Institute. (2013, March 1). Protecting Children and Youth: Canada speaks out on preventing traumatic spine and head injuries in amateur hockey. Retrieved March 13, 2013 from http://www.rickhanseninstitute.org/.
  • “The AANS publicized a compendium of articles published in the November 2010 Neurosurgical Focus on ice hockey concussions. Among the authors are neurosurgeons Charles H. Tator, MD, Robert C. Cantu, MD, and Michael D. Cusimano, MD. A press conference was held in Toronto on Monday, November 1 in sync with the PR distributed by the AANS that day.  This topic is so timely that several large outlets published multiple articles. Top media hits: Associated Press, The New York Times, ABC News, Sports Illustrated, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, Montreal Gazette, Globe and Mail, Washington Post, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, San Francisco Chronicle, Arizona Republic, Huffington Post, US News & World Report, Yahoo!News, and Forbes. To date, there have been 142 articles totaling 459.5 million, making this the most successful Journal of Neurosurgery media campaign thus far. It also slightly edges out the highest media coverage prior to this generated by a single AANS press release; the DBS for depression research highlighted at the 2008 AANS Annual Meeting (458.1 million).”
  • McPhee, J. (2011, November 14). Young people vulnerable to hard knocks. The Chronicle Herald. Retrieved on  November 22, 2011 from, http://thechronicleherald.ca

Water Safety and Spinal Cord Injuries

  • Lem, S. (2011, August 16). Diving-related spinal injury cases soar. The Sun. Retrieved August 17, 2011 from, http://www.torontosun.com/
  • Courtney, R. (2011, August 16). Major increase in serious diving accidents at Toronto hospital. News Talk 1010. Retrieved August 17, 2011 from, http://www.newstalk1010.com/
  • CityTV (2011, August 16). Most diving injuries preventable, alcohol related: St. Mike’s neurosurgeon. Retrieved on August 17, 2011 from, http://www.citytv.com

Brain Injury Management

  • Purvis, M. (2013, June 5). Concussion Workshop at Algoma Public Health to feature expert Dr. Charles Tator. The Sault Star. Retrieved June 27, 2013 from http://www.saultstar.com/
  • Yang, J (2012, September 5). Teenage boys’ brains tested to gauge concussions. The Star. Retrieved September 11, 2012 from, http://www.thestar.com
  • Taylor, K. (2012, March 15). Mental health important piece of concussion puzzle. Health Canal. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from, http://www.healthcanal.com/
  • Ubelacker, S. (2011, December 8). Online concussion library a one-stop resource for information research. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from, http://www.theglobeandmail.com
    • Also featured on 680 News on December 8, 2011
  • Ogilvie, M. (2011, November 9). EEGs give voice to brain-injured patients, researchers find. The Toronto Star. Retrieved on November 22, 2011 from http://www.thestar.com

Outcomes following Concussion in Hockey (OuCH!) Conference

Injury Prevention

  • Gouskos, A. (2013, March 21). Exploring the link between traumatic brain injury and people who are homeless. Retrieved April 23, 2013 from http://www.stmichaelshospital.com/
  • Hewitt, P. (2013, February 28). Hands-free isn’t brain-free, distracted driving researchers say. CTV News. Retrieved March 13, 2013 from  http://www.ctvnews.ca/.
  • Ubelacker, S. (2013, February 28). Left turns and cellphones a dangerous mix: Study. Metro News. Retrieved March 13, 2013 from http://metronews.ca/.
  • Kirkey, S. (2013, February 27). Left-hand turns require “huge” brain power, study shows; add hands-free cellphone and the brain can’t cope. Postmedia News. Retrieved March 13, 2013 from http://www.canada.com/.
    • Also found in the Calgary Herald 
  • Ubelacker, S. (2013, January 21). Health care for homeless challenging to deliver, but includes compassions, doctors say. The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved February 12, 2013 from  www.vancouversun.com.
  • CTV (2012, October 26). Streetcar tracks to blame for one-third of Toronto’s cycling crashes: study.CTV News. Retrieved Thursday November 1, 2012 from, http://www.ctvnews.ca
  • Linton, M. (2012, October 8) Why aren’t bicycle helmets mandatory? Niagara Advice. Retrieved November 1, 2012 from http://www.niagaraadvance.ca
  • Connor, K. (2011, December 28). Long road to better safety: More must be done to prevent crashes. The Toronto Sun. Retrieved Wednesday December 28. 2011.

Sports injuries and concussions

  • Glanz, M., English, J. Students’ brain injuries from sports, falls demand “wake-up call”. CBC News. Retrieved July 31, 2013 from http://www.cbc.ca/
  • Mulholland, A. (2013 June 25). 1 in 5 Ontario teens reports a serious brain injury: study. CTV News. Retrieved July 31, 2013 from http://www.ctvnews.ca/
  • Reuters. (2013 June 10). Kids’ repeat concussions may mean longer recovery. Fox News. Retrieved July 17, 2013 from http://www.foxnews.com/
  • Ralph, D. (2013 April 17). Newspapers could do a better job with concussion coverage: study. National Post. Retrieved June 25, 2013 from http://sports.nationalpost.com/
  • Caba, J. (2013 April 17). Newspapers may not be reporting the correct information on traumatic brain injuries in ice hockey. Medical Daily. Retrieved June 25, 2013 fromhttp://www.medicaldaily.com/
  • Kaplan, K. (2013 April 17). Is the media to blame for the brain injuries of hockey players? Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 25, 2013 from http://www.latimes.com/

  • Nordqvist, C. (2013, April 1). Ice Hockey Causes 44.3% of All Traumatic Brain Injuries Among Canadian Kids. Medical News Today. Retrieved April 23, 2013 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/.
    • Also appeared in: vasupalli-stripping.blogspot.com, radiocarbon-acclimatize.blogspot.com, empiricism-chordal.blogspot.com, writ-trig.blogspot.com, killallcancer.blogspot.com, dailyme.com, medicalnews3002.blogspot.com, http://insurance-kil.blogspot.ca/, newsfreshtoday.blogspot.com, shealthg.blogspot.com , kualalumpurnews.net, vada2at.com,  healthandfitness1blog.blogspot.com 
  • Health News. (2013, March 31). Canada: Hockey brain injury rate high. UPI. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from http://www.upi.com/.
    • Also appeared in: bignewsnetwork.com
  • Jones, K. (2013, March 30). Nearly Half of Sports Related Brain Injuries in Youngsters Caused by Playing Ice Hockey. Medindia. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from http://www.medindia.net/.
  • CBC. (2013, March 28). Kids’ brain injury study shows sports rules poorly enforced: Hockey accounts for nearly half of brain injuries. CBC News. Retrieved April 12, 2013 from http://www.cbc.ca/.
    • Also appeared in: The Huffington Post
  • Wolstat, R. (2013, March 28). Hockey top sport for brain injuries among youth. Sun News. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from http://www.sunnewsnetwork.ca/.
    • Also appeared in: Toronto Sun
  • Ubelacker, S. (2013, March 28). Hockey causes most sports-related brain injuries in kids, teens: prevention study. The Canadian Press. Retrieved April 12, 2013 from http://ca.sports.yahoo.com/.
    • Also appeared in: vancouversun.com, nsnews.com, ottawacitizen.com, edmontonjournal.com, CTV News, Winnipeg Free Press,  Metro News,  The Huffington Post, 680 News, 570 News,  news889.com , news957.com,  The StarPhoenix, Calgary Herald, canada.com, The Windsor Star, news1130.com , leaderpost.com , 660news.com,  1310new.com,  sportsnet.ca, CityNews
  • Boyle, T. (2013, March 28). Childhood brain injuries from sports in Canada avoidable. The Star. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from http://www.thestar.com/.
    • Also appeared in:  The Metro News
  • Weeks, C. (2013, March 28). Most sports-related brain injuries occur in hockey, study finds. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/.
  • Chai, C. (2013, March 28). Ice hockey makes up nearly half of all head injuries in young Canadian athletes. Global News. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from http://globalnews.ca/.
  • Girard, D. (2013, January 25). Toronto teen teams up with Dr. Charles Tator for concussion answers. The Toronto Star. Retrieved February 12, 2013 from www.thestar.com.
  • Dykstra, M (2012, March 14).  Concussion patients will re-visit ERs: UofA study. Edmonton Sun. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from, http://www.edmontonsun.com/.
  • Canadian Press (2012, January 19). Freestyle skier Sarah Burke dies. CBC News. Retrieved on January 24, 2012 from, http://www.cbc.ca
  • TSN (2012, January 19). Ruptured artery led to cardiac arrest for skier Burke. Retrieved on January 20, 2012 from http://www.tsn.ca
  • Mulholland, A. (2012, January 17). Skiing, snowboarding top list of winter sports injuries. CTV Ottawa. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from, http://ottawa.ctv.ca


  • Bradley, B. (April 18, 2013). Canadian study criticizes news coverage of head injuries. NFLEvolution.com. Retrieved June 25, 2013 from http://www.nflevolution.com/
  • Vancouver Sun Editorial (April 5, 2013). Editorial: Brain injury prevention must be priority. The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.vancouversun.com/.
    • Also found in: guardian.co.uk, montereyherald.com, kansas.com, theolympian.com, kansascity.com, heraldonline.com, thestate.com, bellinghamherald.com, macon.com, sanluisobispo.com, centredaily.com, ledger-enquirer.com, tri-cityherald.com, tmcnet.com, cnsnews.com,   baynews9.com, myrtlebeachonline.com, sunherald.com, hosted2.ap.org, huffingtonpost.com, star-telegram.com, sacbee.com, mercurynews.com, tuscaloosanews.com, twincities.com, newsobserver.com, montrealgazette.com, http://www.timesleader.com, Better Boxing Bets, UPI.com, radio-canada.com, medicalxpress.com, northernnews.ca, WTOV9,  sakshamseva.in


CAHO (The Council of Academic Hospitals of Ontario)

  • Catalyst (January 2013). Neurosurgeon at St. Mike’s first in Canada to use 3D camera to remove brain tumour. Retrieved January 21, 2013 from http://www.caho-hospitals.com/