Urology - Kidney Stone Centre

About Kidney Stones

Types of Stones

There are numerous types of kidney stone depending on the composition of the substances that make up a stone.

  • The most common type of stone is made of calcium combined with oxalate, a substance found in numerous foods and drinks. Calcium may also combine with phosphate to form stones.
  • Uric acid is another fairly common kidney stone in urine. If deposited in joints, uric acid will cause gout. Patients with this type of stone may not have a history of gout, but all have high acidity in the urine.
  • Struvite stones are made of a combination of magnesium, ammonium and phosphate and are associated with urinary tract infections.
  • Cystine stones are an uncommon type of stone caused by a hereditary genetic disorder. These stones do not tend to fragment well with shockwave lithotripsy treatments.

Other rare types of stones make up the rest of the urinary stones encountered by patients.