Clinics & Inpatient Care Units

Urology - Kidney Stone Centre

Prevention of Kidney Stones

Stone recurrence is a common problem for kidney stone patients. When no treatment is given to first time stone patients, approximately 15% will have another stone in one year and 50% will have a stone in five to 10 years. Simple measures can significantly lower the risk of forming stones.

Specific measures can be used to prevent against certain stone types. The following list the stone type and the measures, which may be used to prevent recurrences. The type of stone may be found by analysing stones or fragments of stone passed in the urine. Physicians and dieticians will be able to recommend a treatment plan after the completion of metabolic studies involving blood and urine.

Calcium Stones

General measures: increase fluid and fibre intake; decrease salt, oxalate and meat protein intake; moderate calcium intake
Potassium citrate: citrate is an inhibitor of stone growth
Thiazide diuretic: lowers the amount of calcium in the urine
Magnesium: this element is believed to be an inhibitor of stone formation
Cellulose phosphate: binds to calcium in the intestine for cases of high urinary calcium due to increased calcium absorption

Uric Acid Stones

General measures: increase fluid, decrease meat, fish, poultry and salt
Urine alkalinization: sodium bicarbonate or potassium citrate raises the alkalinity of urine to solubilize uric acid for excretion
Allopurinol: lowers the amount of uric acid in the blood and urine

Cystine

General measures: increase fluid intake is most important (three or four litres per day)
Urine alkalinization: cystine is more soluble in alkaline urine
Penicilliamine or Captopril: increases the solubility of cystine in the urine

Struvite

General measure: currently no dietary recommendation for the prevention of struvite stones. The infected struvite stone must be removed to control urinary tract infection. Future urinary infections should be treated early and effectively to prevent recurrent stone formation.

For more information, please contact a registered dietitian.